A guide to erosion control for water quality improvement
New Zealand has a significant erosion challenge with more than 200 million tonnes of soil lost from the land to the sea each year. Some of this is natural but the majority is the result of land development like native vegetation clearance and grazing animals, as well as changes to waterway flows from drainage and river straightening.
Water, soils and wallowing
Deer have specific natural needs and behaviours and if incorrectly managed, deer can threaten the quality of water and soil, cause erosion, compaction and pugging of soils, and the consequent runoff of nutrient, sediment and coliforms will result in contamination of waterways with undesirable behaviour including excessive pacing, wallowing, and digging in soils.