Water, soils and wallowing
Deer have specific natural needs and behaviours and if incorrectly managed, deer can threaten the quality of water and soil, cause erosion, compaction and pugging of soils, and the consequent runoff of nutrient, sediment and coliforms will result in contamination of waterways with undesirable behaviour including excessive pacing, wallowing, and digging in soils.
A guide to soil health and visual soil assessment
Agricultural production on the land is dependent upon what is taking place underground. Even though it’s not apparent to the human eye, healthy soil is a dynamic, living ecosystem that is swarming with macro and micro-organisms cycling through nutrients.
Soil Info Sheets
This site has links to information about each of the soil types found in Southland. Find out about the physical and fertility properties of the soils of your farm
Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) field guide
The VSA Field Guide contains all the information necessary to carry out VSA on your land. The Field Guide is self-explanatory and its use does not require special training or technical skills.
Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research